I read a theory that modafinil can lead to headaches because prolonged use results in neuroinflammation. An excess of overstimulation may be neurotoxic. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Excitotoxicity So I ask you if you have tried one of these anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective along with modafinil: palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) or curcumin (turmeric). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmitoylethanolamide PEA is a neuroprotective: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22414817 2012 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25210802 2014 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26055231 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23046519 2012 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22912680 2012 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curcumin http://examine.com/supplements/Curcumin/ The same applies to curcumin: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022087 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26048285 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25878600 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25440530 2014 Or I want to know if someone has benefited from theanine. The theanine is known because when combined with caffeine, reduces the side effects of nervousness or hyperarousal without causing sedation. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theanine http://examine.com/supplements/theanine/ Even the Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) is known both for being a nootropic that to be a mild sedative, and I wondered if modafinil more Bacopa can be a good combination. http://examine.com/supplements/Bacopa monnieri/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacopa_monnieri Pea and curcumin would act directly on neuroinflammation, while the theanine via the GABA, which is an antagonist of glutamate, the latter the major cause of neuroinflammation. Perhaps even phosphatidylserine has a slight action against hyperstimulation, in addition to being also nootropic. I had also read that according to some people choline could avoid the headache, but I do not know if it is true, as this is certainly true for the piracetam, since consuming choline. For me, soon I will try to associate theanine to modafinil, and if it is not enough try the PEA or Bacopa. I want to try the Bacopa associated with modafinil in any case, since it seems a powerful nootropic.