Modafinil on College Campuses

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Modafinil on  College Cmpuses-Behind the Scenes

What is modafinil?

Modafinil is a type of a medication that enhances wakefulness. It works by making alert the neurotransmitters in the brain. It is used in the treatment of excessive sleepiness that is caused by narcolepsy, sleep apnea or even shift work sleep disorders. It can also be used for many other purposes.

Modafinil Dosage:

Modafinil is usually sold in 100 mg and 200 mg tablets, with the 200 mg tablet being the most popular and widely available. The recommended dose is the 200 mg tablet; it should be taken once by day usually in the morning. It can be taken with or without foods.

You can start with the 100 mg tablet, Modafinil dosage for the first week so that you become adapted to the effects of the Modafinil medication. One can be able to take large dosages up to 400 mg/day if it is well suited for use. However it is not clear if increasing the dosage may have advanced benefits. Before increasing you dosage you must first consult your doctor or a health care professional.

Modafinil side effects

Seek immediate medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to Modafinil, such signs may include: swelling of your lips, throat, hives, tongue or even the face.

Modafinil can cause skin reactions. Stop using Modafinil and seek for immediate medical attention if you have signs like:

l Skin peeling, hives, blisters or rashes;

l Trouble swallowing, mouth sores;

l Breathing difficulties;

l Leg swelling;

l Jaundice, dark urine;

l Lips, throat, tongue or face swelling.


Stop using Modafinil and contact your doctor immediately if you have:

modafinil next imagel Anxiety, depression or even suicidal thoughts.

l Aggression, hallucinations, being more talkative or active then usual.

l Trouble breathing, chest pain, uneven heart beats.

Common Modafinil side effects are such as:

l Dizziness, headache

l Back pain

l Diarrhea, stomachache, nausea

l Sleep problems

l Stuffy nose

Benefits of Modafinil

Modafinil is used as a mood-brightening and memory-improving medication. It promotes attention levels, wakefulness and even vigilance, but its contents are different from those of Ritalin, amphetamines or cocaine.

Modafinil is used in the treatment of narcolepsy; this is a neurological disorder which is manifested by uncontrollable attacks of sleep during the day. It is caused by dysfunction of a type of wakefulness-enhancing peptide family, Modafinil is used to activate oraxin neurons.

Modafinil is used in the treatment of a typical depression. A typical depression is manifested by over-eating, hypersomnia, rejection-sensitivity and low energy. The syndrome is very common.

Many college and university students are using Modafinil. Because Modafinil makes them more alert, active and it also enhances they memory.

Long term effects of Modafinil

Many college students misuse Modafinil in the hope that it will boost their memory, attention or even their energy levels. But long term use of this medication cause:

l Effects in the brain function. It affects the brain development, making it less adaptable for planning, multitasking and organizing.

l It makes your mouth every dry, this can cause mouth sores.

l Skin disease, such as; skin peeling, hives, blisters or rashes.

l It leads addiction; stepping out of this stimulant trap is very difficult.

Short term effects of modafinil

Short term effects of this medication include:

l Back pain.

l Feeling anxious or nervous.

l Dizziness and headache.

l Stuffy nose.

l Diarrhea, stomachache, nausea

l Insomnia.

Research of Modafinil

Current research shows that Modafinil is an effective, safe and well-tolerated agent. Modafinil is long-acting and doesn’t cause secondary sympathetic stimulation. It provokes wakefulness, by its actions in the front hypothalamus. Its dopamine releasing action in the nucleus is dose dependent and weak. The likelihood of an abuse potential, tolerance and dose-escalation is apparently minimal. However the antagonism nature of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors prevents provoked stimulation.


It was originally developed in France by neurophysiologist and Michel Jouvet a medicine professor, in Lafon Laboratories. It originated with the invention of benzhydryl sulfinyl compounds in the 1970s. It was first given as an experimental medication for narcolepsy in France in the year 1986. It is a primary metabolite of adrafinil, but it lacks the polar –OH group on its fatal amide. But has similar activity like the parent drug and its mainly used. The drug has been prescribed in France since 1994 known as Modiodal and in the United States since 1998 called Provigil. Modafinil was approved for use in the United Kingdom in December 2002. It was first sold in the US by Cephalon Inc who got the mandate from Lafon, but the later brought the company in 2001.

Stack of modafinil

It’s taken to stack regularly. The main symptom it targets is narcolepsy. This is a condition where a person cannot avoid off sleeplessness and remains alert and wake. This condition can be brought about due to regular changes in the sleep or stay awake patterns. Mainly people who can be faced with such conditions are those who work in shifts. They might be required to sleep during the day and stay awake during the night. If this pattern is reversed, it will be very hard for them to stay awake during the day. It works by directing the naturally occurring substance in the brain, which is in control of our sleep and wakefulness patterns and corrects it efficiently.



If a person is faced with multiple disorders, then Modafinil is the best option. For example, if a college or university student is having a loss of memory, can take this drug because it doesn’t only eliminate the aspect of memory loss of the brain’s system, but it also improves the ability of the brain to retain what is being taught or what the student is reading. It will increase the student’s mental alertness and the ability to be awake for long hours so as to complete assignments. All those aspects are interconnected and makes sure that the learner succeeds in his or her education. With the use of Modafinil all those aspects are addressed.

If you are been faced with the problems excessive sleeping try Modafinil today to enhance your; wakefulness, alertness and memory so that you can be a successful student in your education

Sunifiram and Modafinil Stack Effects

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Sunifiram and Modafinil Stack Effects

What is Sunifiram?

It is one of the modern nootropics in the market; it belongs to the ampakine supplement family. It enhances one’s learning abilities, decision making and attention span. It’s believed that it works better than Piracetam; it is much potent in comparison. They structure are the same, but others have reported that Sunifiram is 1000 times potent. It can be compared to Noopept in terms of potency.

It’s a memory enhancer, can be used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s patients. It offers a wide range of benefits such as: improved focus, enhanced attention span and improved learning potential. Because of these benefits it has become very famous since its releasing. It has minimal side effects.

Dosage of Sunifiram

SunifiramIt is extremely potent in the market of smart drugs. Small dosages should be taken. It works better when taken as sublingually. This implies that users put it under their tongues for administration. It is a little scoop of powder. Many uses have experienced little tingling, as their can with a breath mint. Ingestion is also easy.

Begin with the smallest dosage, noticing how you feel. Many users have reported that the effects are felt within the first hour of administration. You can increase the dose after a week of administration. Don’t exceed ten milligrams. Administer it sparingly or you can choose to cycle your dosage. This implies that you are able to cycle ‘on’ and ‘off.’ Distributing out your doses over the week and then having a break from your doses.

If you are always getting headaches when using this drug, stack it with a choline supplement. This supplement is non-toxic nootropics that offer to fuel your brain requirements to produce acetylcholine.

History of Sunifiram

It was developed in the year 2000, and it is one of the modern nootropics in the market. The initial studies conducted, demonstrated it as a memory enhancing substance. It has been available in the market for the last few years or so.

There are many reviews that have been written by its users, free from any serious complications. It is one of the most famous ampakine for nootropics users. This is due to the many benefits that it offers. Research is being carried out concerning its clinical uses.

Sunifiram Side Effects

It is generally concerned as a safe product when it is compared to many other over-the-counter nootropics. It has relatively minimal side effects because of its potency indicate that it should be taken in small doses. It should be taken into account that side effects can occur as different bodies respond differently to Sunifiram.

Using a large dose for the first time can be helpful to improve effectiveness with many other nootropics but not for Sunifiram. Using too much may result to brain over stimulation.

There have been no reported dangerous side effects as of date and there are no studies that have shown very adverse harmful outcomes either. Nonetheless, it is necessary to point out that when taking any new kind of supplement or drug, there can be some side effects. With Sunifiram powder, here are some of the possible side effects seen as the effects wear off:

There have been no adverse side effects that have been reported as to date or studies that are been carried out reporting dangerous side effects. With Sunifiram powder here are some possible side effects identified:

l Anxiety

l Jitters

l Nausea

l Indigestion

l Restlessness

l Headaches

l Increased perspiration

It is suggested to be used along side other medication without you consulting you doctor or a physician because this can result to advanced negative effects. Because it is water soluble it is not suitable to be used by pregnant and breastfeeding women. It is not for use as an alternative to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder medication particularly for kids.

Benefits of Sunifiram

It offers a wide range of cognitive enhancing effects. If you a college or university student looking for an improved memory or a better focus, Sunifiram is the best opinion for you. Here are some benefits you will expert when using Sunifiram.

 1.Motivation and enhanced energy levels

Sunifiram will boost your energy. It will also improve your motivation and mood levels, by lowering dopamine deterioration in the brain. Majority of the people require more than just a focus and a memory boost, but they will always require a motivation boost too. Sunifiram is one of the smart drugs that will offer that boost.

2.Increased concentration


Do you wish to focus more on the task at hand? One of the must famous side effects of Sunifiram is that it lowers your ability to be agitated by external stimuli. This is the reason why it’s highly used by college campuses and at a competitive workplace.

  1. Enhanced working memory

It was initial designed as a memory boosting, cognitive improver. Early studies have reported a strong link between Sunifiram usage and enhanced short-term memory, also referred to us working memory. Some users have reported that they hear information once and then they are able to recall if later. Sometime they couldn’t do early.

Long-Term Side Effects

Long term use of Sunifiram has got serious side effect to your liver. This could result from liver toxicity because of the drug breakdown. This is considered a stimulant. It causes an increase in the enzymes of the liver this can be very dangerous.

Other effects are such as; skin conditions like toxic epidermal and DRESS syndrome. But this side effect is very minimal. But you should ensure to talk to a doctor when you notice such kind of symptoms.

Short term side effects

Many people experience these side effects when using this drug like sweating, nausea, restless, and headaches. If you are always getting headaches when using this drug, stack it with a choline supplement. This supplement is non-toxic nootropics that offer to fuel your brain requirements to produce acetylcholine.

Sunifiram Stacks

If you desire to make the effects more strong, you can consider stacking it using Piracetam or oxiracetam. Most people see positive outcomes with a 1:1 ratio of Noopepr to Sunifiram powder. Finally, chorine supplements will make sure that your cholinergic receptors don’t lack acetylcholine to influence the memory improving benefits.

Research of Sunifiram

Most say that Sunifiram make the more alert, it works much in enhancing your concentration. It does not make you to feel anxious but it makes you feel that you are in control. It helps you learn and assimilate information with easy. Ampakinas promote rapid synaptic transmissions, this is the reason why you are able to learn new ideas and store more information in your memory. It is ideal for studying because of its speed and plasticity, and offering brain stimulation for college and university students who require brain power.


If you a college or university student looking for an improved memory or a better focus, Sunifiram is the best opinion for you. Because it will enhance your alertness, memory and makes you awake for a long time.






Modafinil in Comparison to Psychostimulants

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arison to Psychostimulants

What is Modafinil?

Modafinil is a drug taken orally, and is used to enhance wakefulness in patients who suffer from excessive sleepiness caused by narcolepsy (excess daytime sleepiness) or shift work sleep disorder (difficulty in falling asleep or sleep during scheduled hours). The parent drug is Adrafinil. Modafinil is in a class of medications known as wakefulness promoting agents. The precise mechanism of action for the drug is unknown, though scientists say that it works by changing the amounts of certain natural substances in the area of the brain where sleep and wakefulness is controlled.

What are side effects of Modafinil?

 It is important to note that clinical trial side effects may be different from any other patient hence one should be able to see his/her doctor if experiencing unusual problems when taking this medication.

There are effects that only if severe or prolonged, one is supposed to inform his/her doctor; they are headache, dizziness, difficulty staying asleep/falling asleep, drowsiness, nausea, constipation, heartburn, loss of appetite, dry mouth, nosebleed, excessive thirst, back pain and numbness of the skin.

Modafinilimage52Some side effects can be serious, if you is experiencing any of the following symptoms after taking the drug, inform your doctor immediately: rash, blisters, peeling skin, mouth sores, hoarseness or difficulty breathing/swallowing.

What Dosage of Modafinil is appropriate?

 Modafinil is in one or two doses, either in the morning for one dose of in the morning and at midday for two doses. This is since it has a half-life of 15 hours, if taken after midday; it may cause lack of sleep to its users. It comes as a tablet of about 200mg. Incase case you miss your dosage, one is supposed to wait until the time next when you will take the dose. Modafinil should not be misused in place of getting enough sleep since it may cause side effects, follow the doctor’s instructions. I used with drugs such as valium and Tofranil; it shows increased effects of toxicity.

What are Modafinil’s Benefits?

Modafinil has proved to be resourceful in the treatment of narcolepsy, a neurological disorder with attacks of daytime sleepiness. The use of the drug is also in treatment of Alzeihmer’s disease, attention-deficit disorder (ADHD) and multiple sclerosis-induced fatigue. Other than clinically, it has been used by military as well as astronauts to boost soldier activity in the United States among other countries. Pilots of air force planes take this drug to reduce the tenancy of sleep and stay active when flying. Modafinil also has use off the label to treat sedation and fatigue in many conditions including depression.

What are the effects of Modafinil?

There are two types of effects associated with the use of Modafinil, though effects vary greatly with the amount of dosage taken.

l Short Term Effects

The short-term benefits include brain boosting by increasing, concentration span and help with mental focus for people suffer who suffer from hyperactive minds

l Long Term Effects

Over a long period, Modafinil can cause a result of dependency to the drug. It is not clear to scientists on the long-term effects of this drug since it has only been in existence for 16 years.

History of Modafinil

Professor Michel Jouvet and Lafon Laboratories discovered Modafilin in France. This was in the late 1970s, together with invention of benzhydryl, sulfinyl compounds and firstly used in narcolepsy treatment in France in 1986. In 1994, it prescribed in France under the name ‘Modiodal’ and in the United States under the name ‘Povigil’. Cephalon Inc. markets Modafinil n the United States. After necessary negotiations and patents, generic versions of the drug were available since 2012.

Research on Modafinil

 Due to its military use, the United Kingdom’s Ministry of Defense and The Indian Armed Forces Medical Services are both researching on the drug. Modafinil compared to psycho stimulants has not been very clear since it has only been around for less than 2 decades. In pharmacokinetics, individuals with the Val/Val genotype experience a great improvement in their activity while those with Met/Met experience less improvement. Modafinil has no clear action of mechanism though research has t that it interacts with numerous neurotransmitters. It is clear that Modafinil improves functions of the brain extensively.

Modafinil vs. Psycho stimulants

Modafinil has an advantage than the use of psycho stimulants. The use of Modafinil compared to psycho stimulants has reduced the randomized controlled trial due to its action to local brain region. This is advantageous since the drug targets only the brain and not drastically to other body parts as psycho stimulants act randomly. Modafinil works on multiple brain processes at the same time to produce a clean sense of stimulation and bring a natural sense of being alert. Psycho stimulants are susceptible to the patient’s neurochemistry and works mentally as well as physically depending on if the patient has (ADHD).

How to Use Modafinil

 A doctor or equivalent professional in dosages prescribes Modafinil can cause side effects or due to under/over dosing result to lack of comfort to the user. People who have allergies to the drug may not use it. Patients with conditions such as kidney disease, liver cirrhosis and a history of drug addiction may not use the drug unless stated otherwise by your doctor. Avoid missing doses.

Modafinil may serve as a very vital drug in the future if consistent research continues on the side effects and it tested fit for your consumption.


What is Modafinil?

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What is Modafinil?

For people who struggle with staying awake and for those with sleep disorders, Modafinil fast-becoming the drug of choice. It is a wakefulness-promoting drug, and as a result, Modafinil effects on the brain cause the users to experience a number of positive effects, including enhanced cognition, memory, and the ability to stay awake for long period of time.

Modafinil Dosages

Dosages for adults are pretty standard regardless of the purpose of the medication. For narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome and shift work sleep disorder, adults will generally be prescribed 200 mg oral dosages either in the mornings or prior to shift work start. The elderly are given an appropriately reduced dosage.

Children, however, are a different story. Modafinil is usually only prescribed for Attention Deficit Disorder and is not FDA approved for pediatric use. For this reason, it should be used only in instances where both first-line and second-line treatments were not successful, and where the risks don’t trump any benefits. Should children be prescribed Modafinil for any purpose, the dosages are as follows: 200-340 mg once a day for children less than 30 kg (about 66 lbs.), and 300-425 mg for those over 30 kg (about 66 lbs.).

Side Effects

img3General side effects from taking modafinil include headache, chest and neck pain, chills and fever. Additionally, side effects might include any or all of the following: joint disorders, hyperglycemia, abnormal vision, pharyngitis, lung disorders, asthma, dypsnea, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, gingivitis, mouth ulcers, increased thirst, abnormal liver function, hypersalivation, hypotension, arrhythmia, hypertension, irregular heartbeat, nervousness, dizziness, confusion, amnesia, confusion, cataplexy, and more.

Psychiatric effects were also reported. They included delusions, hallucinations, ideas of suicide, and mania. Some psychiatric events resulted in hospitalization, and although some had a prior history with psychiatric events or disorders, not all affected did.

In children, psychiatric events and adverse dermatologic effects (such as severe rash, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, herpes simplex 1, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and dry skin) have been reported in addition to some of the general side effects experienced by many adults.

Benefits of Modafinil

Modafinil effects on the brain are the primary reason why this medication is prescribed. It increases mental capacity without the same kind of after-effects that other stimulants have (grogginess and becoming tired when it wears off). It is also theorized that Modafinil may improve memory by stimulating brain receptors, as well as improve concentration in some people.

In addition to a direct Modafinil effects on the brain, it can be used to create wakefulness in a number of situations. Although usually prescribed to treat sleep disorders and conditions, it can be used to help people overcome their jet lag, provide a means of avoiding sleep in emergency situations, it can cut the need for sleep in healthy individuals by as much as 2/3, and some people see weight loss as a side effect. It can help those with learning disabilities overcome them – including ADD and ADHD.

Long Term Effects

Many of the long term effects of modafinil usage are still unknown. However, some individuals using Modafinil for several weeks at a time have reported feelings of being trapped in an in-between type of consciousness, feeling neither awake nor the ability to sleep. It may also affect slow-wave sleep and the entire structure of sleep patterns altogether. Some scientists speculate that it may also cause affect memory, but not enough research has been done for any conclusive evidence as to whether any chronic conditions or effects may occur.

Short Term Effects

The short-term effects and benefits of taking Modafinil are clear: those who take this drug experience a sharper mental acuity, including the ability to focus and concentrate. They also are given the ability to function normally, particularly if they have sleeping disorders. This is beneficial for the user, however they may also experience some of the more common side effects that go with it, including dizziness, nausea, anxiety, nervousness and headaches.

Modifinil Research

Research in multiple studies – those who were either single double blind studies, multiple cohort studies, or studies in which at least two or more were double-blind and controlled – Modafinil decreased fatigue, increased cognition, increased working memory, increased attention, increased memory, increased the subjective well-being of participants, increased alertness, increased motivation, and increased processing accuracy. In addition, modafinil also decreased impulsivity, the symptoms of ADHD in children, alcohol dependence, fatigue and reaction times.

Modifinil History

Despite the recent increase in Modafinil’s use, this medicine has been around for several decades. After French chemist Michel Jouvet began to study sleep patterns in the 1950s, he discovered the sleep stages we now refer to and it allowed him to partner with a French pharmaceutical company in an attempt to find a cure for sleeping disorders. He did just that. In the 1970s, following a number of attempts at synthesizing compounds he created his first drug to treat narcolepsy, and the follow-up to that ended up being what we know today as Modafinil. Modafinial was first released for prescription in France in 1994, and it’s use worldwide has grown ever since.

Modafinil Stacks

Many times Modafinil is used in combination with other drugs to produce an increased effect. Some Modafinil stacks include use of the drug with Piracetam in order to enhance memory perception and learning capacity, along with the increased mental acuity that comes with Modafinil. Other common stacks include: Modafinil with Noopept, in order for the user to experience heightened perception of color and music, as well as increased focus; and Modafinil with Phenibut, to decrease anxiety, tension and stress, while increasing memory, thinking and learning abilities.

Final Thoughts on Modafinil

Though there are a long list of side effects from using this medication, they occur in a small percentage of people – with some individuals already having had some of them present prior to taking the medication. This medication appears to benefit adult patients significantly and presents few risks to adults who have trouble staying awake. Modafinil effects on the brain are clearly beneficial for the majority of the population for a number of reasons, but due to the risks involved, the use of it much always be discussed in detail with your doctor.

Sunifiram Side Effects

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Sunifiram Side Effects

What is Sunifiram?

This is known to be a piracetam derivative which is classed as an ampakine and is usually purported to improve one’s memory through long term potentiation. As a derivative of piracetam, it has been found to be more powerful than piracetam itself.

Since the drug has shown more potential as a memory enhancer, it is currently being researched as a potential treatment for patients who have Alzheimer’s and other diseases which are associated with cognitive decline.


Modafinil3Side effects

Considered one of the safest drugs, Sunifiram side effects are few and some of them include headaches,anxiety, insomnia or sleeplessness, increased perspiration, restlessness and nausea. While all these side effects are treatable using over the counter medication, they are considered to have low risk of harm to an individual’s health.

For individuals who experience headaches after taking the drug, apart from taking over the counter pain killers, they should also consider taking choline supplement. Choline helps to counter the headache and it’s needed by the body since it contains acetylcholine. Lack of this nutrient in the body is the cause of headaches when one takes the supplement.



As the supplement is a highly potent substance, one should start by taking small doses of 3 to 4 mg. Majority of average users usually take 5 to 8 mg but this is usually done under the instructions of an expert. If one takes a dosage of 10 mg or more, they will get to experience a stimulating effect closer to Adderall.

You need to start with small doses as indicated earlier and increase the dosage as time goes by but you need to consult your physician before you do so.




Increased energy levels

The supplement works by activating AMPA receptors in the body which are known to control glutamate release. This has been found to increase one’s energy levels after intake of the supplement. Apart from increasing one’s energy levels, the supplement helps to motivate and improve one’s focus especially when one is tackling mentally demanding tasks.

Further studies have found that the supplement helps to create more goal oriented activity in individuals who have reported that they think less about completing tasks.


Improves ones memory

Classified as a nootropic drug, Sunifiram has been found to improve one’s short term memory or their working memory capacity. Improved memory allows individuals to be able to recall small details that they learnt a few hours ago without much effort.

In other studies, it has been found out that the supplement helps in long term memory recall therefore allows an individual to remember events that happened in the past.


Improves mood

The anxiolytic benefits of the supplement have been found to help in reducing the sensation of anxiety. Studies on users who have taken the supplement have revealed that the supplement allows them to feel more relaxed therefore giving them giving them a sense of overall well being as well as inducing sunny feelings.


Others have been able to experience stronger euphoric feelings.


Improves perception

The supplement has been widely documented as influencing perception therefore causing colors to appear much brighter and sounds to appear more distinctive. It enables individuals to be more aware of their surrounding therefore being able to notice small details at a higher degree.


Long term effects

Studies have shown that Sunifiram has long term effects especially when it comes to memory recall. As a nootropic drug, it allows individuals to recall events and details that occurred long time ago and were deemed forgotten. This has led to the wide usage of the supplement by students who are looking to improve their memory recall especially when it comes to studies and exams.


Short term effects


Improved short term memory

The active ingredients found in the supplement help to improves one’s short term memory or working memory capacity. By improving the short term memory, the individual is able to recall details that occurred a few hours ago without much effort.


Improved mood

It helps to reduce the sensation of anxiety therefore improving one’s mood in the end. This allows users to feel more relaxed therefore giving them a sense of overall well being.


Improves one’s energy with Sunifiram

It helps to improve one’s energy by activating their AMPA receptors which are known to control the release of glutamate. Increased energy boost allows individuals to be more motivated therefore allowing them to focus on mentally demanding tasks.



The supplement was developed in 2000 and is currently the newest nootropics drug in the market. During the initial studies, it was found out that the supplement helps to boost one’s memory. Although the drug was developed over a decade ago, it has only been available in the market for a few years.

It is also known as DM-235 and is included in the category of ampakine. Although it is not prescribed for clinical use, there are various studies being conducted.



Initial research conducted on the supplement found out that it is more than 1000 times stronger compared to Piracetam powder. Further clinical studies have been conducted and have shown that it is a forceful memory booster and cognitive enhancer. This has led to the use of the drug as a memory booster as well as cognitive enhancer.


Comparison to psycho-stimulants

As a drug that is 1000 times stronger than Piracetam, it was developed in order to replace psycho-stimulants which were found to be highly addictive. When compared with other psycho-stimulants, Sunifiram is less addictive and more beneficial to the user.


How to use

Since it is extremely potent, one should start by taking small doses. Experts have revealed that it works best when taken sublingually. This means that in order for a user to take the supplement, they need to place it under their tongue. It is important to follow the instructions provided by an expert.

Final thoughts

Sunifiram is a powerful nootropic supplement that has several benefits which include enhanced memory, improved cognitive functions, increased energy as well as improved mood. It is important to take the supplement as instructed by an expert.

Piracetam Long-Term Effects on the brain

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Piracetam Long-Term Effects on the Brain

What is Piracetam?

Piracetam is a water-soluble nootropic drug that exerts memory enhancing and mild anxiolytic effects in human beings and test animals such as mice. It is a cyclic derivative of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). This acts by modulating neuroplasticity, neuroprotection and brain metabolism. Piracetam also modulates neurotransmission in a range of transmitter systems in the body. From a vascular point of view, it reduces erythrocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium thereby enhancing micro-circulation. Its diverse range of physiological effects makes it easy to use in different clinical applications.

Wimg4hat are the side effects of taking Piracetam?

 It has few side effects compared with other nootropic drugs. The serious side effects include weight gain, feeling weak, increased libido, and somnolence among the normal mild ones such as anxiety, excitability, irritability and headaches. It is important to note that different people have different reactions to the drug, thus the difficulty in diagnosing whether one has side effects to a drug or not. Any discomfort when using Piracetam should be reported to the pharmacist. However no side effect observed with the drug has been reported fatal.

What dosage of Piracetam is appropriate?

 Piracetam is in the pharmaceutical form of capsules, film coated tablets, oral solution and injectable solution. Its daily dosage should be about 24g distributed between two or three sub-doses; this begins at 7.2g increasing by 4.8g every three to four days. It is important to note that some drugs cannot be mixed with this dosage and should be reduced if taking Piracetam. The dosage varies from kids to adults and should be noted that for children it is about 2.4g to 4.8g in two to three doses while in the elderly vary in case they have conditions such as renal failure.

What are the benefits of taking Piracetam?

Piracetam is from the primary group of nootropics, racetams, which are known to influence the Acetylcholine system; Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory. The Piracetam’s cognitive benefits arise from Acetylcholine receptor influence. This drug assists in boosting sensory reception especially in elderly men/women. Learning and memory has also been seen to be boosted by Piracetam. Body activity and energy are seen to improve when the drug is administered in children. When one is depressed, Piracetam has been observed to raise people’s motivation, though this has not been studied; it is seen to be linked to the Acetylcholine and Glutamate receptor efficiency.

What are the long term and short term effects of Piracetam?

Effects arising from Piracetam can be of short term and long term nature.

l Short Term

Over a short period, it has been noted that Piracetam assumes cogent positive for elderly people, this is when used as a supplement. Also in children it can lead into increased physical activity and motivation in their outdoor activities and their learning. Piracetam short term effects are seen to mostly been beneficial and are advantageous to the population.

l Long Term Effects

In case of people who has suffered from stoke it has been seen as a neuroprotective agent to reduce damage and if taken before on has had a stroke; it reduces one’s risk in getting a stroke.

History of Piracetam

 Piracetam was synthesized at first in 1964 in Belgium by scientists who were led by Comeliu E. Giurgea; it was discovered to bring about a change in mental activity to healthy individuals. This led him to lay claim to the word nootropic (which means smart drugs, memory enhancers; drugs that improve one’s mental function). It was launched clinically by UCB, a Belgian pharmaceutical company in the early 1970s, and was reportedly used in the 1950s for Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy, by Janz. Currently many European, Asian and American countries are actively using this drug, though in Canada it is not sold.

Research behind Piracetam

Since its discovery in 1964, Piracetam research has broadened to see that the side effects have been studied and more importantly, the generic Piracetam has been developed and is used in different parts of the world. Due to Piracetam’s use of the neurological system receptors, it has been found that it can help prevent stroke and other diseases. From Belgium’s pharmaceutical company, UCB to labs found in America, Asia among other places, research is deemed to broaden and allow new upcoming inventions to arise from the drug.

Comparison of Piracetam and other Psycho Stimulants

Piracetam cannot be used with other stimulants since its pharmacokinetics interaction will cause it to be low by about 90% due to its excretion in urine. On the other hand, psycho stimulants remain in the body and are not excreted which is an added advantage

How to use Piracetam?

 Piracetam may be taken with or without meals orally or through injection. The standard dose is intended for treatment of breath-holding spells and has also been used for children with dyslexia.

Piracetam can preserve mitochondria membrane potential when we look at its mechanism in the neurological aspect. Its non toxicity makes it a good health preserving agent.

Oxiracetam Long-Term Effects

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Oxiracetam Long-Term Effects

What is Oxiracetam?


Oxiracetam is a smart drug. It is a racetam that belongs to the class of nootropics. Nootropics are drugs that enhance remembrance, intellect and concentration skill. Oxiracetam is a favorite racetam just like piracetam, aniracetam, pramiracetam and Noopept.

Racetams are a compound of amidogen, oxygen, hydroxyl and nitrogen. Oxiracetam differs from other racetams in the composition of the hydroxyl group. This variance in composition is what counts in making oxiracetama more effective nootropic. It primarily aids mental processing.

Side effects

This drug has minor side-effects which are listed below:

  1. i) Headache

This drug causes headache when not taken with choline add-on.

  1. ii) Nausea

It causes discomfort with predisposition to vomit.

iii) Dizziness

One of the side-effects is a faint sensation where one feels unsteady.

  1. iv) Insomnia

It roots absence of sleep.

  1. v) Anxiety

It results in agitation.

  1. vi) Irritability

It is a base for moodiness and makes one grumpy.

vii) Gastrointestinal distress

This is a disorder that adversely upsets the intestinal scheme.

Most of these side effects are rare and last for a short period when they occur.Higher dosage is the most likely cause of these effects. Nonetheless, the positive effects of oxiracetam overshadow the negative.


The most common prescription is 600 to 800 milligrams taken one to two times a day.This medication can be consumed before or after meals and it comes with a measuring scoop in the package to help measure 600 to 700 milligrams. Add choline supplements to support acetylcholine intensities.

Research has shown that a range of dosage works. Very low to very high amounts still have good results. It is therefore important to start with low amounts first and subsequently increase the intake.

Research consents intake of 200 milligrams per day to 6000 milligrams but the optimal quantity is 2400 milligrams. Overdose has been shown to cause minor side effects but is not fatal.

Seek advice if taking other medication, especially carbamazepine. It is an anticonvulsant prescription used to cure numerous ailments including bipolar syndrome and epilepsy and reacts with oxiracetam.


  • Oxiracetam is a stimulant. Its ability to energize differentiates it from other racetams
  • It is a powerful nootropic. It is far more effective than piracetam and lessens fatigue.It can be used alone or stacked with other nootropics. Stacking further increases its influence

l The routine of use is flexible. A user can consume based on a pattern or take it on selective occasions

l It is unlikely to cause dependence. The cases of overdose are few and do not result from addiction

l Oxiracetam is a harmless medication. It is non-toxic and high dosage over an extended period of time does not result in severe side-effects

Long term effects

Oxiracetam results in the following long term brain effects:

Modafinilimage3l Memory upgrading- it lengthens the short term memory operation and improves memory, especially the ability to recall. Long term memory is highly aided

l Heightened focus and concentration- it increases the talent to learn, motivation and attention span

l Surge in sensory perception- it causes better sensual awareness

l Neuro-protective properties- it aids the brain chemicals and therefore benefits the crucial nervous system. It feeds neuron communications

l Advanced technical thinking- it is a perceptive enhancer that increases the skill to think visibly, quicker and gracefully

Short term effects

Research shows that oxiracetam greatly improves memory and the ability to remember. It is useful during studies to expedite learning. It is commonly used during revision to augment exam performance.

Oxiracetam is a stimulant. This is because the Oxi’s is known to boost acetylcholine development in the brain. Oxi impacts the production of acetylcholine through refining the activity of the enzyme responsible for joining acetyl coenzyme A to choline, and producing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is neurotransmitter that is crucial to memory and learning. In addition, oxiracetam neutralises drug-induced memory deficits.


Oxiracetam was first developed in 1977. It is both a racetam and a stimulant although it differs from other stimulants and racetams. It has been used in different studies, including tests on Alzheimer patients. Moreover, it has been tested on patients with Attention Deficit Disorder, dementia, post-concussion syndrome, and other problems.

It was tested in mice resulting in evidence showing increase on the oxiracetam long term brain effects. However, studies are still ongoing to check the extent of this drug.


A lot of research has gone into this drug. Studies suggest that oxiracetam has medical uses. The focus has been on its long term brain effects.

Inquiries are also about how oxiracetam can cure deteriorating dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, age-related mental deficit and ADHD.It has not received much prescription as a medication for mental-problems treatment. There is much research under analysis to make it a cure for dementia and organic solvent abuse.

Oxiracetam lessens the effects of these illnesses. It does so through improving cognitive-related profits and through its neuro-protective characteristics.


Comparison to psychostimulants

Psychostimulants have the similar effects on the brain as oxiracetam. Some psychostimulants treat ADHD and are classified are nootropics. Oxiracetam is in the class of psychostimulants.

Stacking racetams and psychostimulants to support a patient’s state of mind is delicate. The combination is likely to be dangerous since the two have similar intensities. Their strength needs assessment and evaluation first.

Both oxiracetam and psychostimulants are dominant on the overall effects and are not a good long term solution. A simple nootropic has better long-term brain effects than psychostimulants.

How to use

Oxiracetam works well with other supplements. First-time users should try the drug alone to see how they react to it first before combining with others. The only advisable supplement to start with is choline.

It is also important to determine the quantities to take. This drug remains in the body for eight hours. Start with a low dosage and increase after observing its effects. Mix it with water or another solvent since it is highly soluble. It is also available in tablets or powder form.

Final Thoughts

Most users of this drug highly commend oxiracetam and fancy it to other racetams. The key factor is to purchase this drug from a trustworthy vendor and determine the right dosage. There are various distributors of nootropics and other supplements which have a positive effect on the brain activity.

The side-effects of this drug are minimal but since it is medication, follow instructions while using it. If not sure about its use, consults a doctor. This is especially important when on other prescription drugs. Oxiracetam is not a clinically-sanctionedcure and is not meant to treat medical ailments.

Sunifiram Euphoric Effects

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Sunifiram Euphoric Effects

There are many drugs that are considered part of the nootropic family. These drugs often referred to as smart medications, help to increase the attention span, improve cognition and enhance memory. People of all ages are taking these medications to help improve their cognitive ability. Some doctors are prescribing nootropics to help patients who are experiencing memory declines due to Alzheimer’s disease. Through this information, people will learn all they need to know about Sunifiram, including the sunifiram euphoric effects.

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What Is Sunifiram?


Sunifiram is a nootropic that is not in the same class as the vast majority of other nootropic drugs. Sunifiram is a medication that is in the ampakine family. This medication works slightly differently than traditional nootropics found in the Racetam family. Though research suggests this drug can improve memory, research has not been carried out on human subjects. As further research is carried out, it is hoped more can be learned about the cognitive effects Sunifiram offers.


Side Effects of Sunifiram


For most people, Sunifiram is a safe and effective medication that does not produce extensive side effects. As with all medications, there are some side effects people can experience, including:


* Anxiety

* Headaches

* Insomnia

* Nausea


Most people experience mild side effects that do not prevent them from continuing to take the medication. Any drug can cause interactions with people who have certain medical conditions or take medications or supplements. This is why it is crucial people are careful in taking Sunifiram by first consulting with their doctor to ensure this medication will be safe for consumption and will not cause them any adverse side effects. According to the Nootriment Organization, this drug does not produce any major adverse side effects, making it a safe nootropic for most people.


Dosage of Sunifiram


The dosage of Sunifiram will depend on the person’s age, weight, and health. The average safe dosage of Sunifiram is 7 milligrams a day. This nootropic is considerably more powerful than others in its class, so people can take much less and get more effect.


The maximum dosage of Sunifiram ranges from 4 milligrams to 8 milligrams and the drug should not be taken more than three times in a day or adverse side effects could be increased. To receive the best results, people should take the drug sublingually (under the tongue).


Benefits of Sunifiram


Sunifiram works to dramatically improve memory and cognition. It has also been proven to help people increase their attention span so they are more attentive in class, at work and in their personal lives. Sunifiram also increases mental alertness to help people stay more focused in every aspect of their life.


Those who take Sunifiram report experiencing greater levels of productivity and motivation so they are able to stay on task and committed to their goals. Some people talk of the sunifiram euphoric effects which seem to give them a rush of energy. This drug also offers:


* Improved learning ability

* Improved mood

* Better reasoning

* Improved recall

* Improved memory formation


Long Term Effects of Sunifiram


The long-term effects of taking Sunifiram are still unknown, as this is a fairly new drug. There is always a risk involved whenever a person begins taking a drug that has not been studied for many years. Those who have taken the drug report they have had no adverse reactions, but it is important to note long-term studies have not been carried out on humans so no one is truly aware of what they can expect from taking the drug on a long-term basis. This is why it is crucial people remain under the care of their doctor to ensure their health is monitored.


Short Term Effects of Sunifiram


The short-term effects of Sunifiram are mostly reported as being positive. Many people experience an instant feeling of energy and alertness seeming to flood their mind. Some people report sunifiram euphoric effects, but these effects are minor.


This medication instantly begins to give people better focus and concentration so they are able to take it before work or school to see increased mental performance.


History of Sunifiram


Sunifiram was created in 2000 and is fairly new on the market. Through extensive animal studies, it was found Sunifiram offered improvements to cognitive ability. Though the long-term effects of this drug remain unknown, there are hundreds of positive online reviews that suggest the drug is safe and has few side effects. This is one of the most impressive nootropic drugs on the market and continues to offer substantial results when taken as recommended.


Research on Sunifiram


Extensive research has been carried out on rat subjects. This research has found a positive effect on the brain by increasing the cognitive ability of the subject. Though human research has not been conducted, those who take this medication have found it to be beneficial in helping them to achieve better memory and concentration without feeling drugged or sleepy. Further research needs to be carried out on how this medication can help those who suffer from Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive issues.


Comparison to Psychostimulants


Sunifiram has been compared to psychostimulants like Modanofil though it seems to not produce as high a level of euphoric effect. This medication helps people to gain better cognition, sex drive, perception, memory and energy levels. This medication has been proven safe and is rising in popularity as being one of the best nootropic offerings available.


How to Use Sunifiram


Sunifiram can be taken up to three times a day, depending on the dosage. To gain the best effect, it is recommended people place the tablet under their tongue, where the network of vessels is located. The tablet should be left in place until it melts so the medication can be absorbed into the bloodstream. This allows the medication to go right to work on improving memory, alertness and focus.


Final Thoughts on Sunifiram


Though this medication has been safely taken by many people, it is imperative people practice caution when taking any mind altering medication. Speaking with a doctor before taking Sunifiram can help to ensure the drug will be safe and will not cause adverse health conditions or interactions with other medications a person may be taking.

Adrafinil and Modafinil

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What is it?


Adrafinil and is a wakefulness promoting agent that is used to relieve excess sleepiness and lack of attention. It is also used by people who wish to avoid getting tired such as night workers or anyone who wants to stay awake for a long time. Modafinil is used to treat people who suffer from obstructive sleep apnea.




Modafinilimage15The recommended daily dosage of Adrafinil is between 150 and 300 mg. It is ideal for one to start with a low dosage until they get comfortable using it. The dosage needs to be taken two to three times a day. You should not take it very late at night as you will not be able to sleep. To get the best level of positive effects with Modafinil, you should take 200 mg once a day in the morning.


Side effects


Some of the common side effects that are associated with this drug are blurred vision, fever or chills, black stool and clumsiness. Adrafinil is also known to cause some unwanted effect when taken at high doses. There is the potential increase in heart blood pressure and other heart related diseases.



Many users who take Adrafinil report that their memory improved, they were able to recall information and there was an increase in attention span, focus and concentration. Modafinil has been shown to help people stay awake and active. Their minds also become clearer.


Long term effects


The most serious long term side effect of Adrafinil is liver problem. There can be a lot of toxicity due to the breakdown and conversion of the drug into modafinil which is also deemed to be a stimulant.


Short term effects


Some short term effects of Adrafinil include dizziness, loss of appetite, headache, nausea, anxiety and weight loss.




An early research on adrafinil was done in the 1970s by Lafon Laboratories in France. The research showed that adrafinil in animals increased their activity at night without causing any anxiety.




The history of Modafinil starts with the development of Adrafinil, which was used to treat narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. The best thing about Adrafinil is the fact that it did not lead to anxiety at all.




The main reason why you should stack Modafinil with other nootropic is to get a balanced increase in mental performance. Taking it on its own improves reasoning, memory and judgement.


Final Thoughts on this


As seen above, before you choose between Adrafinil and Modafinil, it is vital that you get in touch with a healthcare provider about these two drugs. You need to know the dosage that is safe to take for your body. You can choose to use them infrequently or in conjunction with a nootropic stack.

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What is it?

Nootropics is a range of drugs that enhance the cognitive ability of an individual. They are smart drugs that have few side effects even after a long period use. They work by growing retention and knowledge neurotransmitters. The drugs increase the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain. Moreover, they serve as a toxin remover and anti-oxidant. These drugs are considered safe because they protect the brain. They arealso acclaimed to be effective in boosting energy levels and concentration.


Different nootropics drugs have different strengths. The dosage is also affected by individual situations. How are you going to stack the drugs? What is your sensitivity? What is your expected outcome? What is the half-life of the medication? All these reasons complicate a recommendation on the dosage. However, drugs with longer half-life require Modafinilimage39large but infrequent doses. Similarly, short half-life medicine can be taken in small portion, up to four times a day. Start with small amounts as you observe the effects before increasing the intake.

Side effects

Side effects are occasional and occur mostly when adjusting to the drug for the first time or when dosage is increased. The following are some of the side effects:

  1. a) Headaches

The brain functions more and requires additional acetylcholine than what the body normally generates. The acetylcholine receptor sites therefore overwork. This demand consequently causes headache. Racetams mainly cause this effect and can be countered by adding Choline to the stack.

  1. b) GI tract issues

Excessive dosage affects the intestines. As the body eliminates the excess, there is irritation and uneasiness. Diarrhoea and nausea may also occur. You can revert to the usual dosage or stop intake for a few days until the symptoms disappear.

  1. c) Fatigue and insomnia

Increased alertness causes insomnia and fatigue. Timing is crucial while taking these drugs and they should not be taken near bedtime

Other side effects include: anxiety, restlessness, nervousness, mood disorder or depression, depending on the dosage. Also look out for skin irritation, increased blood pressure, and light-headedness. Recheck the stack as this may be the reason for these negatives.


Nootroprics have the following benefits:

l Reserve and defend the brain neurons. Theyshield the brain from bodily and chemical harm like concussions, barbiturates or scopolamine. They also enhance the firing system of the neurons

l Enhance vasodilation of the brain

l Increase the intensities of various neurotransmitters that affect learning and memory

l Have minor side effects

l Have low toxicity

l Inhibit the interference with learned conducts and memory development to circumstances which tend to interrupt them, such as electroconvulsive shock or hypoxia

l Slow down aging of the brain

Long term effects

Most compounds in the nootropics category have no established long term effects. This is because of the intricacies of running such experiments. However, the following can be listed as some of the long term effects:

l Improve brain health and neural functioning

l Advance memory retention

l Enhanced focus that intensifies and grows over time

l They acts as an anti-aging components by removing toxins and lipofuscin

l Encourage the development of new neurons and neurotransmitters

l Increase cell membrane flexibility

l Supply the brain with needed nutrients

Short term effects

Short term effects differ from one person to another and can be listed as below:

l They improve memory

l Facilitate learning capability

l Increase productivity

l Enhance motivation

l Help to recall dreams richly

l Improve focus and attention span

l Create superior verbal fluency and linguistic dispensation. This is important especially in social settings to be able to think on ones feet more swiftly

l Increase cerebral blood flow

l Replenish the neurotransmitter acetylcholine that is used to generate higher thought and mind-muscle connection.

l Improve the connections between the different parts of the brain (motor control, sensory, etc.) and also the different hemispheres of the brain.


The science behind how piracetam increases memory is unknown. Lack of exercise and balanced diet has been shown to have input in poor brain development in young people.Brain development also halts at a young age and enhancer come in to increase the decision power and memory. Every intake of nootropics may give you a new healthy life style. Nootropics are being tested as of 2015 to be the key to Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. In addition, different nootropics drugs complement each other and their effect is also collective. Supplements are safe for protracted use and findings recommend that you can take a source of choline with piracetam.


The first drug came to life in the 1960s and was first used to treat motion sickness. It was tested for memory enhancement in 1971. The name ‘nootropics’ was created by a Romanian doctor called Dr.Corneliu Giurgea. Initial experiments were done on rats and other animals to prove their use. Nootropics have also been tested on Alzheimer’s patients. People were suspicious of these drugs when they hit the market but embraced them with time. The drugs have transformed from a taboo to a necessity with many taking them to get ahead in life.


A great combination of nootropics has significant impact on the brain. Nootropics stacks work to reduce nervousness, escalate concentration, increase memory and generally increase the brains ability. Onnit Labs’ Alpha Brain stack is recommended as a ready to use stack.

Decide what effects you would like to experience in order to put together the right stack for you. It may take several trials to find the right combination. Some of the highly regarded supplements include:

l Pramiracetam

l Noopept

l Sunifiram

l Piracetam

l Racetams

l Aniracetam

l Adrafinil

Any of these can be picked to form a stack. Beginners tend to use Piracetam first, and then upgrade to Aniracetam or Oxiracetam which are a bit stronger.

Final Thoughts on this

People no longer want only healing from drugs but also enhancement. This is what nootropics give. What is defined as human capability is changing and will be defined in different ways with advancement in science. There is a push to control the surrounding and amplify the human body. For example, athletes take protein powders and hormones to boost their performance.

The science beyond evolution is what nootropics try to condense. Instead of waiting for millions of years to be better and more civilised, man is taking matters into his own hands and creating a rapid sophistication. Why wait for millions of year to be smarter, faster and more in control?